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Title: A Study of Consumption Pattern of Tribal People of Backward Districts in West Bengal
Authors: Das, Pinaki
Das, Sourav Kumar
Keywords: Consumption Pattern
Poverty Gap
Food Security
Social Protection
Issue Date: 25-Nov-2020
Publisher: Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal, India,
Abstract: India has a variety of tribal livelihood which reflects its significant ethnic diversity. The tribes have been scattered all over the hill, dense forest and backward regions of the country. As consumption pattern is the most important indicator of the livelihood, so we have to analysed the changing context of livelihood of tribes on the basis of consumption. This study details with the consumption expenditure of tribes and non- tribes in the three backward districts of the West Bengal namely Puruliya, Bankura and Paschim Midnapur to examine the trend and pattern of consumption of tribes in comparison with non-tribes. NSSO Unit Level Data of 50 66 th (2009-10) and 68 th th (1993-94), 61 st (2011-12) round has been used to analyze the facts. Monthly Percapita Consumption (MPCE) of tribes has been increasing overtime as well as the consumption expenditure of non-tribes also increasing at the same period. Though, the MPCE of non-tribes is more than that of tribes. If we see the consumption expenditure on the constant price the result gives the same trend for both the categories. The study also estimates that the overtime food consumption has been decreasing overtime as a result of increase of non-food consumption for both the categories. Consumption of the items like Egg, Fish, Meat, Spices, Fuel and Light, Clothing, Durable goods and miscellaneous goods has been increased for both tribes and non-tribes over time. That is both the categories are trending towards the high value product. The study also reveals that over time the tribes are converging towards the non-tribes in terms consumption. Though a major portion of tribes and non-tribes lies in below poverty zone and food insecurity zone, the percentage has been diminishing overtime. Study also revels that in case of tribes there has been a significant impact of public distribution system on food security and poverty (2004-05), reduction. Over the years food consumption inequality of food between tribes and non tribes are also diminishing. As the tribes are living within the nature, the tribes are normally unable to produce any substantial surplus according to their necessity, that’s why they are more depended on the forest products that are non-marketed consumption goods. As we know consumption as an activity of combining market and non-market elements, with the aim to analyse the changing phenomenon of the sources of consumption we have create a boundary between market and non-market sources of the consumption process and to examine the interrelations between the marketed and non-marketed consumption of the tribes. An analysis based on NSSO unit level data reveals that over time tribes become dependent on marketed consumption over non-marketed consumption across different items for both food and non food. So the dependency of forest on tribes has been decreasing slowly but steadily over time; as a result tribes are tending towards marketed consumption. The above scenario has been same both in case of current and constant also. Pooled Regression estimates that over time tribal households are tending towards marketed consumption due to improvement in the occupation scenario of the tribes as well as for securing more welfare from the Public Distribution System. As there has been no such proper study that can revels the consumption pattern of different groups of tribes across region, the concentration has been given to the major tribal communities of these three districts, that is, Santals, Mundas, Bhumijs and Lodhas and this study has been based on the primary data. As these tribes are belongs from the same regions and living closely to each other, their consumption basket has been more or less same. There has been significant difference has been found among the tribal groups as well as across districts. Analysis reveals that Bhumijs of Puruliya and Mundas of Paschim Midnapur district have significant difference over MPCE than the other tribes of the area. Poverty gap analysis has been used to measure the intensity of poverty of the sample households. The poverty and insecurity scenario are also similar across tribal groups. Since our main focus is on tribal community, we also derive the main independent variables that results the changing variations of consumption expenditure across tribes across districts. Finally regression analysis have been done to find the impact of factors on the Monthly Percapita Consumption across tribes across districts, that will clarify the causes of difference of consumption across tribal communities of the districts. Social Security programs is a menu of policy instruments which addresses poverty and vulnerability via social insurance, social assistance and that attempts to social insertion particularly for tribes. We have evaluated the efficacy the role of Social Protection Programs(SPPs) and Common Property Resources(CPRs) for tribal food security. This has been revealed by Probit analysis. Analysis gives powerful synergies between food welfare policy and food security. Public Distribution System, Mid Day Meal, ICDS and consumption as well as income from Common Property Resources have a significant impact on tribal food security. Finally we can say that over time tribes are converging towards non tribes, as a result their dependency on marketed consumption has been increased ,again the consumption scenario across tribes across districts are not distinct, though their consumption has been much depended on Social Security programs and Common Property Resources which has a reflection on their food security also.
Appears in Collections:Economics with Rural Development - Ph.D.

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