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Authors: Das, Tanima
Keywords: Adolescent girls
Waist-Hip ratio
Issue Date: Apr-2017
Publisher: Registrar , Vidyasagar University , Midnapore , West Bengal , India , 721102
Series/Report no.: IJBS;23
Abstract: The prevalence of obesity has been increased dramatically in past few decades in both developed and developing countries. Obesity turned into epidemic and became a public health challenge throughout the world. According to WHO reports, 340 million children and adolescent aged 5-19 were overweight or obese in 2016. In developing countries such as India, especially in urban populations, childhood obesity is an emerging context. Indian data regarding current trends in childhood obesity are emerging. A study conducted among 24,000 school children in South India showed that the proportion of overweight children increased of the total students in 2001 to 2005 demonstrating the time trend of this rapidly growing epidemic (Chhatwal et al., 2004). Another study from northern part of India reported a childhood obesity prevalence of obesity in the higher socio economic strata compared to the lower socio economic strata (Marwaha et al.,2006). Studies from metropolitan cities in India have reported a high prevalence of obesity among affluent school children (12 to 14 years). Despite National representative data for childhood obesity in India being unavailable, some studies carried out in some metropolitan cities has shown that the prevalence of obesity is significant. The children in developing countries like India are presently suffering from the double jeopardy of malnutrition – urban children are afflicted with the problems of over nutrition and the slum children from under nutrition (Information provided by the “Central of dieses control & prevention”) (Marwaha et al., 2006). For this present context the present study participants who were invited from the selected two schools, were in the grade between 7th and 9th standard and between the age range 12 and 14 years. Many studies document that children from certain ethnic groups are more likely than other children to be overweight. As noted, data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys showed that developing countries and lower-income children have a higher incidence of obesity than children overall. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Strauss and Pollack (2001) demonstrates that ethnic group and family income affected the overweight tendency as well as also documents regional differences. The Avon Longitudinal (Reilly et al., 2005) study demonstrated that the odds of children aged 7 becoming obese because of heredity. For this context as it is the hometown, the readily available Bengali population and urban population were selected. In view of these following contexts, the present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of obesity among a group of urban living adolescent girls who were Bengali by ethnicity and its associated factors, which includes socio-demographic variables and anthropometric measurements. The present study influenced by all these studies aimed to see if there is really a connection exists between obesity and other selected factors such as, age of the participants at the time of interview, monthly family income to categorize the family and father’s occupational type and anthropometric measurements such as: anthropometric measurements were taken on the participants following standard protocol (Lohman et al., 1998) - height (cm), weight (kg), waist circumference (WC) (cm), and hip circumference (HC) (cm). Weight was measured by the weighing machine (the weight of dress is neglected), standing height was measured by the anthropometric rod. BMI for each participant was calculated using the formula (kg/m^2). Waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured using a non-stretchable measuring tape. WC was measured at the minimum circumference between the iliac crest and the rib cage. HC was recorded at the maximum circumference over the buttocks. The authorities of all the educational institutes from the selected area (Barasat, N 24 PGS) were approached to apprise them about the nature and objective of this research project. A sample questionnaire was provided to all the institutional heads for their perusal and consent. Finally, the authorities of two (2) senior secondary schools (Bengali medium) allowed me to conduct the field work in their institutes. The schools were ‘Barasat Girls’ High School and ‘Pranabananda Ashrom Balika Vidyalaya’. Study participants who were invited from the schools, were in the grade between 7th and 9th standard and between the age range 12 and 14 years. Objectives of the study were explained and written consent was taken from all the participants who volunteered to participate in this study and after that the total sample size for this study was 202 girls from these two schools. The data were collected during the month of May 2016. The information was collected with standard questionnaires. Out of 202 participants, 49 were of age 12 year old, 43 were of 13 year old and rest was of 14 year old. The study participant shows that there were 83.87 % were non-obese and only 16.13 % were obese when 12 years old girls were considered. Similarly 83.71% girls of age 13 years were observed non-obese and the rest were obese (16.27%). Very similar trait was observed when 14 years old girls were considered where 84.15% were non-obese and 15.84 % were obese. The mean and SE of BMI for 12 years old girls was 22.8 (±5.4) kg.m-2, for 13 years old; it was 21.3 (±2.8) kg.m-2 which was very similar with 14 years old girls of 21.4 (±2.5) kg.m-2. The frequency of central obesity (on the basis of Waist-Hip ratio) increases according to age of the participants. The present study provides information on the prevalence of general and central obesity among participants aged between 12 to 14 years. Age, fathers’ occupation and monthly family income may have played a role on prevalence of obesity among the participants. Obesity in adolescents and children has raised to significant levels globally with serious public health consequences. In addition to emotional and social issues, it poses a serious hazard to the basic health care delivery system. Unless this epidemic is contained at a war footing, the implications of this global phenomenon on future generations will be serious. The reversibility of this disease with suitable intervention strategies should be seen as an opportunity and efforts pursued with vigor.
Description: Page : 87-97
ISSN: 0972-8503
Appears in Collections:Indian Journal of Biological Sciences Vol.23 [2017]

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